Diphtheria is a highly infectious disease (contagious disease). The disease is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection with Gram-positive bacilli form. The germs that infect the respiratory tract, especially the tonsils, nasopharynx (the part between the nose and pharynx / throat) and larynx.
Diphtheria is contagious and attacks mainly the upper respiratory tract with symptoms of high fever, swelling of the tonsils (tonsils) and looks dirty white membrane that grew larger and can close the airway. Diphtheria toxin can damage the heart muscle that can result in heart failure. Transmission is generally through the air (betuk / sneezing) than it can through contaminated objects or foods.
Before the era of vaccination, toxins produced by bacteria that often causes a serious disease, it can even cause death. But since the vaccine diphtheria immunization against diphtheria is found and encouraged, the number of cases of illness and death from diphtheria bacteria decreased dramatically.
Diphtheria can affect all ages but most often affects children who have not been immunized. People with diphtheria are generally the children, aged less than 15 years. During the first beginning of the 20th century, diphtheria was a common cause of death of infants and young children. In 2000, around the world reported 30,000 cases and 3,000 fatalities due to this disease. Reportedly 10% of cases of diphtheria can be fatal, that is to cause death.
The disease is also found in densely populated areas with low sanitation levels. Therefore, maintaining cleanliness is important, because of their role in supporting our health. Poor environment and is a source of disease transmission. Since its introduction of DPT vaccine (Dyphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus), diphtheria began rarely encountered. Children who do not get diphtheria will be more susceptible to disease that attacks the respiratory tract is.
In recent years morbili, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are responsible for the deaths of 4 million children in the world. This disease also causes 4 million children to be physically and mentally handicapped.
The data show that each year in this world there are 1.5 million infant deaths aged 1 week and 1.4 million stillbirths (Tinker, 1997 in the WHO-MOH-FKMUI, 1998) due to not getting immunized. Without immunization, approximately 3 out of 100 children born will die from measles, 2 of 100 children born will die from whooping cough. 1 in 100 births will die of tetanus. And out of every 200,000 children, one will suffer from polio
Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria bacteria will infect the respiratory tract. The incubation period is 2-4 days. The first sign of diphtheria is a sore throat, fever and symptoms that resemble the common cold. Bacteria will proliferate in the body and release toxins (poisons) that can spread throughout the body and makes the patient became very weak and sakit.Gejala-other symptoms that arise, among others:
a. Swallowing pain, cough becomes harsh and hoarse voice
b. Nausea and vomiting
c. Fever, chills and headache
d. Heart rate increased
e. Formed membrane / membrane is thick, mottled, brownish-green or grayish on the throat so it is difficult to swallow and it hurt.
f. If diphtheria is getting worse, my throat became so swollen that causes sufferers to be shortness of breath, even more dangerous anymore, can also close the road completely respiratory.
g. Glands will swell and pain around the neck.
h. Sometimes the ears become painful due to inflammation
i. Diphtheria can also cause inflammation of the heart wrapping so that patients can die suddenly.
These symptoms are caused by a toxin produced by diphtheria bacteria. If left untreated, the toxins produced by these germs can cause an inflammatory reaction in the upper airway tissue so the tissue cells may die.
Tissue cells that die along with inflammatory cells forming a membrane or coating that can interfere with the entry of air breathing. Membrane or coating is colored brownish gray, and usually can be seen. Child’s symptoms become difficult to breathe. If the layer is formed and continues to cover the lower respiratory tract will cause the child cannot breathe. The result is fatal because it can cause death if not treated immediately.
The same toxins also can cause complications in heart and nervous system usually occurs after 2-4 weeks of being infected with diphtheria germs. Death often occurs because the heart becomes damaged.
Malicious attacks on the incubation period of 1 to 5 days, longer rare. Nasopharynx can cause infections that cause breathing difficulties and death. The main cause is inflammation of the membranes of the upper respiratory tract, usually the posterior pharynx but kadang2 nasal passages, larynx and trachea, plus a thorough damage to all organs including the myocardium, nervous system, kidneys caused exotosin (Plotkins) organisms.
When diphtheria attacks the throat and tonsils, the early symptoms are sore throat, loss of appetite, and fever. Within 2-3 days, a layer of white or gray signal is found in the throat or tonsils. This layer is attached to the ceiling of the throat and may bleed. If there is bleeding, the layer change menjai aba-gray-green or black. People with diphtheria are usually no fever but can be neck pain and shortness of breath.
Diphtheria disease is spread person to person through respiratory droplets particularly throat caused coughing and sneezing… Diphtheria germs live on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, throat, and nose in people infected with this germ. Transmission is generally through the air (betuk / sneezing), sputter cough the sufferer. Can also through contaminated food items or Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Transmission of diphtheria can also contact through close contact, through contaminated air by career.
Diphtheria Prevention is most effective with concurrent immunization with tetanus and pertussis. DPT vaccination in children before the attack of diphtheria antibodies can stimulate the formation of the body to fight germs and boost the immune system against certain types of diseases. DPT vaccine is given three times since the baby was two months with a single injection hose – two months. DPT vaccination is usually given as a baby aged 3 months. For the immunity provision of basic needs to be given 3 times in a row with a distance of 1-1 Â½ months, then 2 years then started again.
This immunization will provide active immunity against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus at the same time. Side effects that may arise are fever, pain and swelling on the surface of the skin, how to overcome given enough febrifuge. Since its introduction of DPT vaccine (Dyphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus), diphtheria began rarely encountered. Children who do not get diphtheria will be more susceptible to diseases that attack the respiratory tract.
In addition to the above precautions can be done by doing:
a. Reduce drinking ice.
Drinking beverages that are too cold to excess can irritate the throat and cause sore throat.
b. Maintain cleanliness of the body, clothing and environment.
Infectious diseases such as diphtheria are contagious in a bad neighborhood with low sanitation levels. Therefore, in addition to personal hygiene, we must also maintain the cleanliness of the surrounding environment.
c. Food we eat must be clean.
If we have to buy food outside, choose a clean shop.
d. If you have been stricken with diphtheria, the patient should be treated properly to speed healing and to avoid becoming a source of transmission to others.
Diphtheria Treatment is focused to neutralize diphtheria toxin (poison) to kill the germs of diphtheria and Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria. Toxins produced by bacteria are eliminated by administering anti-venom is called with a specific anti-toxin for diphtheria germs. Antibiotics are given within a certain period to eliminate germs, stopping the production of toxins by germs, and treat local infection upper respiratory tract.
If a child suffering from diphtheria, he had to be hospitalized because they often come to a head. Complete rest is needed, especially in children with signs of complications in the heart. Once attacked by diphtheria one time, usually the patient will not be attacked again in their life.